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Iron deficiency

In the field of anaemia treatment, we are proud to offer both oral and intravenous iron products to supplement body’s iron stores and relieve the symptoms of anaemia.


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What is anemia?

is a pathological condition where the amount of haemoglobin circulating in the blood is reduced. Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common form of this condition, caused by inadequate iron stores or impaired iron absorption, which results in a reduction of haemoglobin concentration, reducing the production of red blood cells.

The facts



Iron is used in the body to produce haemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to all our tissues, and also myoglobin, a similar protein found in muscle tissue.



For anyone eating vegetarian or vegan diet, it is recommended that their daily dietary intake of iron should be increased 1.8 times.



According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the global prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age is about 30%. It is estimated that anaemia affects about 2 billion people across the globe, of whom over 1 billion have iron deficiency anaemia.



The recommended daily dietary intake of iron is approximately 8 milligrams (mg) for adult men, 8–18 mg for adult women (27 mg during pregnancy) and, depending on age, 7–11 mg for children (up to 15 mg for adolescent girls).



The human body contains 3–4 grams of iron, and about two-thirds of all iron is found in the red blood cells.



We receive most of our iron from recycled aged erythrocytes, but the remainder is obtained from our diet.



The body needs iron to maintain our immune system.



Worldwide, anaemia is the most common nutritional disorder.

Causes of anemia


Poor nutrition even if we consume food high in iron, it may not be absorbed by the body. One of the reasons for this, is that products such as coffee, red wine and dairy can affect the absorption of iron and these should be avoided for more effective treatment.


Severe blood loss iron loss due to acute or chronic bleeding, e.g. during surgery, heavy menstruation or after childbirth.


Diseases affecting the absorption of iron in the blood iron deficiency anaemia is common in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Additionally, hepcidin, which is secreted by the liver during periods of inflammation, interferes with the absorption of iron via the intestines and prevents its placental transfer in pregnancy.


Symptoms of anemia

A typical symptom of iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is fatigue, which can adversely affect someone’s ability to carry out daily activities and functions. Other symptoms include: dizziness headache loss of balance light activity causing a shortness of breath an abnormal heartbeat mild depression and irritability reduced cognitive activity the sensation \ of feeling cold lucas-vasques-9vnacvx2748-unsplash-copy-2

Blood test


The most common test for these symptoms is a blood test to determine the levels of haemoglobin.


Another important criterion is ferritin. This protein stores iron in the body. If the patient’s haemoglobin level is within the normal range but the ferritin level is low, this suggests an increased risk of anaemia.


According to the WHO, anaemia is diagnosed when the haemoglobin value is:
• less than 130g/l in men
• less than 120g/l in women

for pregnant women
• less than 110g/l (1st and 3rd trimester)
• less than 105 g/l (2nd trimester)
The recommended minimum value of

Ferritin is:
• 12-150 µg/l for women
• 25-400 µg/l for men


The aim of iron deficiency treatment is to provide sufficient iron to replenish iron stores and normalise haemoglobin levels in anaemic patients. For this purpose, higher doses of iron are administered.

First-line treatment

Oral iron supplements are prescribed. Treatment usually lasts for 3–6 months until the target haemoglobin concentration level is reached. Once this is reached, the dose is reduced and treatment continues for another 3–6 months with the aim of restoring the body’s iron reserve. Oral treatment is safe and inexpensive, but requires a long treatment period.

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Second-line treatment

Intravenous iron preparations are prescribed when:
• oral treatment is not an option
• oral iron preparations are ineffective
• there is a clinical need for rapid iron replenishment

1Intravenous iron preparations contain iron complexes that are similar to ferritin, the
physiological form of iron found in the body. For this reason, the efficiency of the
body’s response to intravenous iron preparations means it is over 90% effective.

2A single infusion lasting about 30 minutes restores the necessary iron stores, and the
maximum increase in haemoglobin levels is achieved after 4 weeks.

3There is a low risk of anaphylaxis and high tolerability – adverse reactions occur in approximately 2% of patients.

4Intravenous iron absorption is not affected by our diet or inflammation indicators.