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Iron deficiency

We are proud to offer oral and intravenous iron products to supplement the body’s iron stores and relieve the symptoms of anaemia disorder.

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anemia

Iron Deficiency

Iron Deficiency Anaemia

Anaemia

What is ANAEMIA

ANAEMIA is a pathological condition where the amount of haemoglobin circulating in the blood is reduced. Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common form of this condition, caused by inadequate iron stores or impaired iron absorption, which results in a reduction of haemoglobin concentration, reducing the production of red blood cells.
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The facts

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Worldwide, anaemia is the most common nutritional disorder.

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According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the global prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age is about 30%. It is estimated that anaemia affects nearly 2 billion people across the globe, of whom over 1 billion have iron deficiency anaemia.

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The recommended daily dietary intake of iron is approximately 8 milligrams (mg) for adult men, 8–18 mg for adult women (27 mg during pregnancy), and, depending on age, 7–11 mg for children (up to 15 mg for adolescent girls).

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The human body contains 3–4 grams of iron, about two-thirds of all iron is depicted in red blood cells.

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For anyone with a vegetarian or vegan diet, we suggest their daily dietary iron intake should be increased 1.8 times.

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The human body receives most iron from recycled aged erythrocytes, but the rest we obtain from our diet.

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Iron is used in the body to produce haemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to all our tissues, and myoglobin, a similar protein found in muscle tissue.

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Our bodies need iron to maintain their immune system.

Causes of anaemia

1

Poor nutrition

Even if we consume iron-rich food, it may not be absorbed by the body. One of the reasons for this is that products such as coffee, red wine, and dairy can affect iron absorption, and we should avoid these products for more effective treatment.

2

Diseases affecting the absorption of iron in the blood

Iron deficiency anaemia is common in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Additionally, hepcidin, secreted by the liver during inflammation, interferes with iron absorption through the intestines and prevents its placental transfer in pregnancy.

3

Severe blood loss

Iron loss due to acute or chronic bleeding, e.g. during surgery, heavy menstruation, or after childbirth.

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Symptoms of anaemia:

A typical symptom of iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is fatigue, which can adversely affect someone’s ability to carry out daily activities and functions. Other symptoms include:
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Blood test

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The most common test for these symptoms is a blood test to determine the haemoglobin levels.

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Another vital criterion is Ferritin. This protein stores iron in the body. If the patient’s haemoglobin level is within the normal range, but the ferritin level is low, this suggests an increased risk of anaemia.

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According to the WHO, anaemia is diagnosed when the haemoglobin value is:

  • less than 130g/l in men
  • less than 120g/l in women
  • for pregnant women
    o less than 110g/l (1st and 3rd trimester)
    o less than 105 g/l (2nd trimester)

The recommended minimum value of Ferritin is:

  • 12-150 µg/l for women
  • 25-400 µg/l for men

Treatment

Iron deficiency treatment aims to provide sufficient iron to replenish iron stores and normalise haemoglobin levels in anaemic patients. For this purpose, higher doses of iron are administered.

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First-line treatment

Oral iron supplements are prescribed.

 

Treatment lasts 3–6 months until the target haemoglobin concentration level is reached. Once it is reached, the dose is reduced, and treatment continues for another 3–6 months to restore the body’s iron reserves.

 

Oral treatment is safe and inexpensive but requires a long treatment period.

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Second-line treatment

Intravenous iron preparations are prescribed when:

  • oral treatment is not an option
  • oral iron preparations are ineffective
  • There is a clinical need for rapid iron replenishment

Intravenous iron preparations contain iron complexes like Ferritin, the physiological form of iron found in the body. For this reason, the efficiency of the body’s response to intravenous iron preparations is over 90% effective.

A single infusion lasting about 30 minutes restores the necessary iron stores, and the maximum boost in haemoglobin levels is achieved after four weeks.

There is a low risk of anaphylaxis and high tolerability – adverse reactions occur in approximately 2% of patients.

Intravenous iron absorption is not affected by our diet or inflammation indicators.

Ganzoni Equation for Iron Deficiency Anemia

g/L
g/L
kg
(Use 500 mg for adults and children ≥35 kg; use 15 mg/kg if <35 kg)
mg
Recommended iron dose: mg
Maximum dose: mg
Treatment dosages: dosage
Dilution: Monofer should not be diluted to a concentration of less than 1 mg iron/ml (excluding volume of ferric derisomaltose solution) and should never be diluted to more than 500 ml
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It is recommended to use the patient’s ideal body weight for obese patients or pre-pregnancy weight for pregnant women. For all other patients use actual body weight. Ideal body weight may be calculated in a number of ways e.g. by calculating weight at BMI 25 i.e. ideal body weight = 25 * (height in m)2